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Ancient Science and Technology 25000-500 BC

The history of humanity is usually divided into baptized periods based on the materials used for the technology of the time: stone, bronze and iron.

Three major divisions are the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. These partitions cover different periods of time in different parts of the world, and represent periods of development, rather than specific historical dates. For example, in Cataluya Huyuk, Turkey, the use of copper began around 6200 BC, while for Aboriginal Australians, the stone age continued until almost the present time.

The spread of technologies
In ancient China, the bronze age began around 2700 BC. And lasted for about 2000 years. Elsewhere, technologies were introduced through contact with foreign peoples. In Africa, iron management began around 800 BC, when it was imported from Egypt, which brought them out of stone age.

One of the most significant inventions was the wheel, which was first used by the Sumerians, more than 5000 years ago; The device needed more or less flat surfaces on which wheels. The boats were important, moved by pallets or poles, then by oars or sails. The latter were the best means of mobilization, and many ancient civilizations depended on rivers and boats for transport.

How to make life easier?
Many implements were needed for agriculture, domestic tasks, and militia. Such objects ranged from needles and utensils to food, vessels and furniture, shovels and saws, to swords and battering rams; All of them invented in order to meet different needs throughout the centuries. These objects allowed urban civilizations to be born and to flourish.

From Abacus to Computer
All the technologies that are used today, have their roots in the prehistoric era. In modern times we used computers, but accounting systems such as the abacus were invented thousands of years ago.

Examples of ancient science and technology
Cro-magnon man, about 40,000 years ago, used wood, stone and bone utensils. They knew how to prepare animal skins to make clothes and shops, and they knew how to shape objects to make them useful tools.

Ancient Science and Technology 25000-500 BC...

The first tools were made of any available hard stone. The flint allowed to have a greater variety that made it possible to create more sharp tools. The image shows a knife-like blade, a stone in the shape of a drill and a pointed tool.



The first boats were canoes made from a wooden trunk. Later, more complex boats were made, made of animal skins attached to a wooden frame. The first were built about 6000 years ago in Great Britain.

Science and technology boat 1

Science and technology boat 2

Reconstruction of a loom of the iron age in Europe, around 500 a.C. It was used to weave yarns of colored wool to fabricate fabrics. The vertical threads, which were tempered with clay weights, moved back and forth, while a cart passed between them to intertwine the threads. Such fabric was a great step forward compared to the use of animal skins.

Science and technology loom

No one knows when the wheel was invented. Probably, the first wheel was taken from the cut of a log, or it could have been developed from the wheels of the potters. Ciertamene, carts were used in Sumer more than 5000 years ago. They carried great weights for long distances. From the car was created an important weapon of war, the carriage, which expedited the charge in battle. The wheel was also used as a pulley to lift heavy loads. New ways of working in wood allowed the construction of lighter wheels, while the metal allowed to build stronger axles.

Science and technology Wheel 1

Science and technology Wheel 2

The first bronze founders used bellows to fan the fire to a temperature at which metals, such as copper, melted into liquid. The laundry was poured into molds. When cooled, the metal product was finished by polishing and sharpening. Then copper and tin were mixed together to make bronze, a metal of greater hardness.

Science and technology ancient bronze smelters

This bronze bucket and ax head, richly decorated, were manufactured in Europe around 600 BC.

Science and technology ancient cube

Science and technology ancient ax

An iron dagger with its sheath of ancient Europe, a sickle and nails. Nails made the wood work easier and faster.

Science and technology ancient dagger and sling


C. 9000 A.C. The spearheads were first manufactured in the Americas.

C. 8000 A.C. Early signs of agriculture in Mesopotamia.

C. 3000 A.C. The wheel was used in carriages in Mesopotamia.

C. 2700 A.C. The Chinese began to work the bronze and weave the silk.

C. 2500 A.C. Construction bricks were first used in the Indus Valley.

C. 1500 A.C. The Hittites cast iron in the Middle East.

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